Most courses extend over four days, one hour and a half per day.
Courses are delivered in english.
We will present some recent developments in syntagmatic grammar (HPSG) based on empirical phenomena in French and English, on the notion of construction which can help to understand the system of relatives, and on the syntax of coordinations and other related phrases (such as comparative correlatives, like the more, the better or plus... plus).
The course will be in two parts
Prerequisites : only the rudiments of logic, semantics and pragmatics are necessary. Any psycholinguistics background would help but will not be assumed.
The prosodic structure of sentence S - its phrasing, the location and choice of pitch accents, possibly other aspects of its phonetic realization - is determined by at least two factors: the syntactic structure of S, and the information structure of S, e.g. which constituents in S are marked as focus, contrastive topic etc. How do these two factors constrain prosodic structure, and how do they interact? Is there such a thing as a default / unmarked prosody, and what is its relation to 'marked' patterns? These are the kinds of questions we will discuss and try to answer in this class
Though a certain formal understanding of what focus is is required to tackle these issues, this class is not about the semantics or pragmatics of focus marking. It is about the representation and realization of focus, or put differently, its effects within the computational system and at the PF interface. I will present a theory of focus representation and realization (a somewhat eclectic blend which reflects my own preferences) and compare it to other current proposals.
Prerequisites: This class requires basic knowledge of syntax and linguistic argumentation; knowledge of either prosodic or intonational phonology, semantics, and/or focus/information structure is useful, but not necessary.
The object of this course is to give a general introduction to mathematical logic to students interested in linguistics, cognitive science, or philosophy, and for whom the tools and central notions of mathematical logic can be useful. The course will give a special emphasis on the metalogical concepts involved in logic, in particular syntax and semantics, expressiveness, completeness and decidability. I will give elements of proof theory and model theory. We should cover in particular (the program is subject to modifications)
The slides of the class are on my website: paulegre.free.fr
Two introductory and well-written textbooks:
Prerequisites: No previous knowledge of logic is required for this class and the course is adressed in particular to students registered in the First Year of the Mastère de Sciences Cognitives.
This class will focus on the study of the syntax that supports quantification in natural languages. We will look at various arguments that the scope of quantifier phrases coincides with their syntactic c-command domain. The empirical phenomena we will investigate includes Island Phenomena, Antecedent Contained Deletion, Extraposition, and Reconstruction. If the arguments are successful, various covert operations need to be postulated, and syntactic theory needs to be developed to accomodate them. We will discuss possible ramifications.
Pre-requisites: Intro classes in both syntax and semantics (optimally graduate level).
What is the nature of the mental representations of spoken words? This course will contrast two broad views on phonological representations, the symbolic and the dynamical view. In the symbolic view, representations consist of discrete symbols, mental realities abstracted from phonetic detail. The major problem under this view is how to related discrete symbols to the continuity of phonetic substance. It has been proposed that this relation consists of a 'translation' from discrete units to continuous physical properties of an articulatory-acoustic nature. This is the view in the background of most work in phonology and cognitive science in general. The other most recent and less explored view, the dynamical view, admits continuity in phonological representations. The primary units are spatio-temporal gestures with continuous spatial dimensions and internal temporal structure. Here the major problem is: how can continuous representations support qualitative, combinatorial systems like phonological grammats? Answers to these questions will be explored by presenting theoretical and experimental research on different phonological phenomena.
Bibliography : see the Website of the course, http://homepages.nyu.edu/~ag63/DEC-cours-active/index.html.
Prerequisites : None.
This research seminar will explore the consequences of a situation semantics for theories of tense, attitude ascriptions, quantifier domain restrictions, and conversational implicatures.
Webpage with some relevant papers: http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/~kratzer/
Prerequisites: Linguistics, philosophy of language.
This course will cover two distinct yet related areas in language acquisition research. The first section will present research on infants' early sensitivities to structure and patterns in their speech input. The focus of these lectures will be on the generalizations 7- to 18-month-old infants make, as they listen to speech, that are relevant for grammatical learning. In particular, we will discuss children's sensitivity to cues relevant to grammatical category (e.g., noun, verb, adjective), as well as infants' discovery of bound morphemes and morphosyntactic dependencies. Several experimental techniques for testing infants using natural and artificial languages, as well as computational techniques for assessing cues to structure in children's spoken language input, will be introduced.
The second section will cover issues relating to word learning in 2 to 4 year old children, specifically focusing on research concerning how children learn the meanings of words as they are used in context.
The genetic origins of the language faculty have been a matter of speculation for decades. With the completion of the Human Genome Project, it is at last becoming possible to empirically investigate the matter. We will review the first pieces of data from molecular genetic studies of developmental language disorders, and take the opportunity to get into the complexity of the biological processes involved, dispel any simplistic notion of a "gene for language", and acquire an informed view about what the genetic contribution to language might be.
Prerequisites: Some knowledge of biology will definitely help, but is not a pre-requisite, as biology basics will be covered.
I would like to discuss some questions which arise in the traditional empirical domain of the Empty Category Principle (subject-object asymmetries, various kinds of selective extractability from weak islands, etc.), and which can be address in novel ways by combining insights from the cartographic studies and from minimalist syntax.
Prerequisites: basic knowledge of P&P/minimalist syntax.
A leading assumption of syntactic theory is that the interpretation of a phrase or sentence is grounded in its form, i.e. in the feature make-up of its constituents and the way these constituents are organised (structured). We shall be more specifically concerned here with the structure and interpretation of noun phrases. Our aim is to explain their referential properties - whether or not we associate them with discourse referents, and when we do, how formal properties guide our semantic construal of these referents. How may such semantic effects as those commonly known as '(in)definiteness', 'specificity', 'genericity', 'partitivity', the 'mass/count' distinction, etc. be derived from morphosyntax? Haitian (a French-based creole) will provide us with interesting empirical material for us to explore and analyse. We shall focus on two major functional ingredients of Haitian noun phrases - the plural marker yo and the so-called 'definiteness' marker la - and we shall bring out the general economy of the grammar at work. Along the way, we shall see through concrete examples how the grammar of any language (in this case, Haitian) is but an instance of grammar at large - the grammar of human language: 'Universal Grammar'. Since our chosen language is Haitian, our study will also lead us to broach the subject of creolization - how the development of creole grammars should be formally accounted for from a diachronic viewpoint.
References on noun phrase structure and interpretation Structuring Sense.Borer, H., 2004, Structuring Sense. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Borsley, R. 1997. "Relative clauses and the theory of phrase structure." Linguistic Inquiry 28-4: 629-647.
Bouchard, D. 2002, Adjectives, Number, and Universal Grammar. Oxford: Elsevier Science.
Bouchard, D. 2003, "Les SN sans déterminant en francais et en anglais." in Essais sur la Grammaire Comparée du Franc?ais et de l'Anglais, P. Miller & A. Zribi-Hertz(eds.), 55-95. Saint-Denis, France: Presses Universitaires de Vincenne.
Cardinaletti, A. and Starke, M.1999, "The typology of structural deficiency: a case study of the three classes of pronouns." In Clitics in the Languages of Europe, H. van Riemsdijk (ed.), 145-233. Berlin: Mouton-De Gruyter.
Cherchia, G. 1998, "Reference to kinds across languages". Natural Language Semantics 6: 339-405.
Coene, M. and Y. d'Hulst (eds.) 2002, From NP to DP, vol.1: The syntax and semantics of noun phrases. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Coene, M. and Y. d'Hulst (eds.) 2003, From NP to DP, vol.2: On the expression of Possession. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Delfitto, D. and Schroten, J. 1991, "Bare plurals and the number affix in DP." Probus 3-2: 155-185.
Dobrovie-Sorin, C. and B. Laca, 2003, Les noms sans déterminant dans les langues romanes, in D. Godard (sld.) Les langues romanes: problèmes de la phrase simple, Paris: CNRS, pp. 235-279
Doetjes, J., 1997, Quantifiers and selection, La Haye: HILGiorgi, A.and G. Longobardi, 1991, The syntax of noun phrases, CambridgeRU: Cambridge University Press
Godard, D. 1988, La syntaxe des relatives en franc?ais, Paris: CNRS
Gue?ron, J. 2003, "Inalienable Possession and the interpretation of determiners." In From NP to DP, volume 2: On the Expression of Possession, M. Coene and Y. DHulst(eds), 189-220. Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Guéron, J. and A. Zribi-Hertz (eds.) 1998, La grammaire de la possession, Université Paris 10, Nanterre: Publidix
Kayne, R. 1994, The Antisymmetry of Syntax. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Kwon, S.-N. and A. Zribi-Hertz, 2004. "Number from a syntactic perspective: why does plural marking look truer in French than in Korean?" In Empirical Issues in Formal Syntax and Semantics 5: Selected Papers from CSSP 2003, O. Bonami& P. Cabredo Hofherr (eds.), http://www.cssp.cnrs.fr.
Longobardi, G. 1999, "The structure of DPs: some principles, parameters and problems". In Handbook of Syntactic Theory, M. Baltin and C. Collins (eds.). London:Blackwell.
Longobardi, G. 2001, "Formal syntax, diachronic minimalism, and etymology: the history of French chez."Linguistic Inquiry 32-2: 275-302.
Lyons, C. 2000, Definiteness. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
Milner, J.-C., 1978, De la syntaxe à l'interprétation, Paris: Seuil.
Smith, C. 1964, "Determiners and relative clauses in a generative grammar of English". Language 40-1: 37-52.
Szabolcsi, A. 1984, "The possessor that ran away from home." The Linguistic Review 3:69-102.
Tasmowski, L. (ed.) 2000, The expression of possession in Romance and Germanic languages, Cluj-Napoca, Rumania: Clusium
Vendler, Z. 1967, Linguistic and Philosophy. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press.
Vergnaud, J.-R. 1985, Dépendances et niveaux de représentation en syntaxe.Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Zribi-Hertz, A. and Mbolatianavalona, L. 1999, "Towards a modular theory of linguistic deficiency: evidence from Malagasy personal pronouns." Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 17-1: 161-218.
Zribi-Hertz, A. 2002, "The DP hypothesis and the syntax of identification." Recherches Linguistiques de Vincennes 31: 127-142.
Some references on creole syntax and French-based creoles
Bernabe?, J. 1983, Fondal-Natal : Grammaire Basilectale Approchée des Créoles Guadeloupéen et Martiniquais. Paris : L'Harmattan.
Bernabé, J. 1987, Grammaire Créole fondas kréyol-la. Paris: L'Harmattan. Bickerton, D., 1981, Roots of Language. Ann Arbor: Karoma Carden, Guy, 1993, "The Mauritian Creole lekor reflexive: substrate influence on the target-location parameter". Dans F. Byrne & J. Holm (dir.) Atlantic meets Pacific: a global view of pidginization and creolization (Creole Language Library 11): p. 105-117. Amsterdam/Philadelphie: John Benjamins
Carden, Guy; & William Stewart, 1988, "Binding Theory, bioprogram, and creolization: evidence from Haitian creole", Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 3-1: p.1-67
Carden, Guy; & William Stewart, 1989, "Mauritian creole reflexives: a reply to Corne", Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 4-1: p. 65-101
Chaudenson, Robert, 1973, "Pour une étude comparée des créoles et parlers francais d'Outre-Mer: survivance et innovation", Revue de linguistique romane 37: p. 342-371
Chaudenson, Robert, 1992, Des îles, des hommes, des langues: essai sur la créolisation linguistique et culturelle. Paris: L'Harmattan.
Chaudenson, Robert, 2001, (revised with S. Mufwene), Creolization of language and culture. London/New York: Routledge.
Chaudenson, Robert, 2003, La créolisation: théorie, applications, implications, Paris: L'Harmattan
Corne, Chris, 1988, "Mauritian creole reflexives", Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 3-1: p. 69-94
Corne, Chris, 1989, "On French influence in the development of Creole reflexive patterns", Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages 4-1: p. 103-115 Damoiseau, R. 1999, Eléments de Grammaire Comparée Franc?ais-Créole. Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe: Ibis Rouge Editions.
Déchaine, Rose-Marie; and Victor Manfredi, 1994, "Binding domains in Haitian", Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 12: p. 203-257
DeGraff, M. 1992, Creole Grammars and the Acquisition of Syntax: the Case of Haitian, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
DeGraff, M. 1999a, Language Creation and Language Change: Creolization, Diachrony and Development. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
DeGraff, M. 1999b, "Creolization, language change, and language acquisition." In DeGraff(1999a), 1-46.
DeGraff, M. 2002, "Morphology in creole genesis." In Ken Hale: a Life in Language, M.Kenstowicz (ed.), 53-121. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
Déprez, V. 2000, "Parallel (a)symmetries and the internal structure of negative expressions." Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 18-2:253-342.
Fattier, Dominique, 1996, "Regards sur les pronoms personnels de l'haïtien (dans une perspective comparative)". Dans D. Véronique (dir.) Matériaux pour l'étude des classes grammaticales dans les langues créoles: p. 213-242 Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l'Université de Provence
Gadelii, K.E. 1997, Lesser Antillean French Creole and Unversal Grammar. Doctoraldissertation: Go?teborg University.
Germain, R. 1995, Grammaire Créole. Paris : L'Harmattan.
Goodman, M.F. 1964, A Comparative Study of Creole French Dialects. The Hague: Mouton.
Hazaël-Massieux, G. 1999, "Marking specificity in Antillean Creole French." In St Kitts and the Atlantic Creoles, P. Baker & A. Bruyn (eds.), 271-288. University ofWestminster Press: Westminster Creolistic Series 4.
Heine, Berndt, 2005, "On reflexive forms in creoles", Lingua 115-3: p. 201-257
Janson, T. 1984, "Articles and plural formation in creoles: change and universals." Lingua 64: 291-323.
Joseph, F. 1988, La Détermination Nominale en Créole Haïtien. Unpublished dissertation, Université Paris-7.
Kihm, A., 1991, La créolisation: théorie et applications. Recherches Linguistiques de Vincennes 20.
Kihm, Alain, 1996, "Reflexivity in Kriyol: a case of half-hearted grammaticalization". Dans P. Baker & A. Syea (dir.) Changing meanings, changing functions: papers relating to grammaticalization in contact languages (Westminster Creolistic Series 2): p. 219-223. Londres: University of Westminster Press
Koopman, H., 1986, "The genesis of Haitian: implications of a comparison of some features of the syntax of Haitian, French, and West African languages". Dans P. Muysken & N. Smith (dir.) Substrata versus universals in creole genesis: p.231-258. Amsterdam/Philadelphie: John Benjamins.
Lefebvre, C. 1998, Creole Genesis and the Acquisition of Grammar: the Case of Haitian Creole. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mufwene, S., 1994, "La fonction réfléchie en créole", exposé présenté à l'atelier Morphologie et syntaxe des langues créoles, Université de Provence, 23-25 juin 1994
Mutz, K., 2002, "Remarques sur la construction de la réflexivité dans les langues créoles à base lexicale francaise", exposé présenté au colloque Etudes créoles, sous thème numéro 2: Créoles: description et aménagement linguistiques, La Réunion
Muysken, P.; & N. Smith, 1995, "Reflexives". Dans J. Arends, P. Muysken & N. Smith (dir.) Pidgins and creoles: an introduction: p. 271-287. Amsterdam/Philadelphie: John Benjamins.
Pompilus, P. 1976, Contribution à l'Etude Comparée du Créole et du Francais à partir du Créole Haïtien. Morphologie et Syntaxe. Port-au-Prince: Editions Caraïbes.
Sylvain, S. 1936, Le Créole Haïtien, Morphologie et Syntaxe. Belgium: Wetteren.
Valdman, A. 1978, Le Créole : Structure, Statut et Origine. Paris: Klincksieck.
Véronique, D., 1996, "Quelques propriétés des pronoms personnels en mauricien". Dans D.Véronique (dir.) Matériaux pour l'étude des classes grammaticales dans les langues créoles: p. 243-258, Aix-en-Provence:Publications de l'Université de Provence
Zribi-Hertz, A. and H. Glaude, to appear 2005, "Bare NPs and deficient DPs in Haitian and French: from morphosyntax to referent construal", in M.Baptista & J. Guéron (eds.) The syntax, semantics and typology of noun phrases in creole languages, Amsterdam-Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Zribi-Hertz, A. and H. Glaude, to appear 2006, "La réflexivité en haïtien: réexamen et comparaison", in K. Gadelii & A. Zribi-Hertz (eds.) Grammaires créoles et grammaire comparative, Saint-Denis: Presses Universitaires de Vincennes